Complete Guide to Iceland – All You Need to Know

March 3rd, 2021

Written by:

Camila Contreras-Langlois

15 min read

Iceland is a fascinating country, rich in heritage and natural wonders. Just like its landscape and history, Iceland is multi-faceted and intrigues visitors from around the world.

Before you set off on your journey, learn more about its culture and history. And know what to expect in terms of the best things to visit and the best time to travel.

We鈥檝e put together a guide to Iceland, detailed and useful, just for you.

About Iceland

Let鈥檚 start with the basic facts about Iceland. It is a unique island set in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Nicknamed the Land of Fire and Ice, Iceland offers an amazing landscape of glaciers and volcanoes.

Iceland has a population of only 350,000 inhabitants making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. Nearly two thirds of Icelanders live in or around Reykjav铆k as it is the financial and cultural center of the country.

Around 75% of Iceland is uninhabited, including the highlands, glaciers, lava fields, and beaches. So there is plenty of tranquil and untouched places to visit!

Quick facts about Iceland:

  • Capital: Reykjav铆k
  • Currency: Icelandic kr贸na (ISK)
  • Time zone: Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) all year
  • Language: Icelandic
  • Religion: majority Lutheran
  • Main industries: fishing, geothermal power, and tourism
  • Drinking age: 20 years old

Our guide to Iceland continues with more about Icelandic history, weather, and wildlife below.

Horses in volcanic landscape, Iceland


The Norse origin of the early settlers is what influenced the language and culture of Iceland today. Most of the evidence indicates that the first permanent settlers came from Norway and from parts of the British Isles where Viking settlements had been established.

According to The Book of Settlements (Landn谩mab贸k), Ing贸lfur Arnarson was the first permanent settler of Iceland, establishing himself there in 874. A few decades later, in 930 the settlers established their central parliament, the Al镁ing. It is still active today, making it the oldest surviving parliament in the world.

In the 1200s a pact was made with the King of Norway and later Iceland fell under Danish rule due to Scandinavian pacts and wars. It wasn鈥檛 until 17 June 1944 that Iceland was going to regain its independence. This national holiday is now celebrated every year.

Weather in Iceland

Is it always cold in Iceland? With a name like that, you would think so, wouldn鈥檛 you? But the climate in Iceland is milder than you may expect. Thanks to the Gulf Stream, Iceland enjoys a temperate oceanic climate with cool summers and relatively mild winters.

Icelandic weather is very changeable and it can happen fast too. This is why, when you鈥檙e visiting, you should always be prepared for unexpected weather. You may experience all four seasons in one day, so pack well to adjust your clothing at short notice.

The average summer temperatures in Reykjav铆k are 10-13掳C (50鈥55掳F). But you may encounter some warm days into the 20s掳C (68掳F +). In winter, expect temperatures to hover around 0掳C (32 掳F). In the north, they may fall to -10掳C (14掳F) or below. 

What to pack, all year long, for a trip to Iceland:

  • Lightweight under layers such as long-sleeved shirts and t-shirts
  • Woolen sweaters and fleeces
  • Rainproof and windproof coat (insulated for winter travel)
  • Rainproof pants
  • Sturdy walking or hiking shoes with woolen socks
  • Warm hat, scarf, and gloves


While Iceland鈥檚 stunning landscape is the main reason people travel here from far and wide, there is also a variety of wildlife to witness. In fact, the water, sky, and land are teeming with beautiful animals!

Icelandic marine life is exquisite. Go on a boat tour to try to catch sight of the many types of whales, dolphins, and seals feeding around Iceland. The capital of whale watching in the country is the northern town of H煤sav铆k.

All land mammals, except for the Arctic fox, have been brought by settlers to the country. These include the many, many sheep and the reindeer of East Iceland that all roam freely.

Reindeers on a meadow in Iceland

Finally, bird watchers will be pleased to hear that there are over 70 species that nest regularly in Iceland. This even includes some that do not breed anywhere else in Europe.

Up to about 10 million puffins spend their summers in Iceland. Find them on the high bird cliffs around the country, such as the L谩trabjarg cliffs in the Westfjords. Also be on the lookout for harlequin ducks, Barrow鈥檚 goldeneyes, gyrfalcons, and Br眉nnich鈥檚 guillemots, among others.

Fun fact: Did you know that Iceland is one of the few places in the world without snakes?

Iceland鈥檚 natural beauty

One of the biggest draws of Iceland is its stunning and rugged natural beauty. You may be wanting to visit to be able to witness the tall peaks, windy cliffs, ice caps, and black beaches, among many other highlights.

Read a little bit more about these natural gems you can find in Iceland here.


A relatively young land, geologically speaking, Iceland is located on both the Iceland hotspot and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which runs right through it. This location means that the island is highly geologically active with many volcanoes.

There are at least 30 active volcanoes in Iceland. In fact, Iceland鈥檚 volcanic activity made world news recently with the eruption of Eyjafjallaj枚kull in March 2010. It disrupted international air traffic for some weeks.

Geothermal activity takes many shapes and forms too. They are an important part of Icelandic nature and include mud pools, steam vents, sulfur pits, and geysers.

You鈥檒l also want to keep in mind the relaxing hot springs in which you can dip to warm up after a day of hiking or exploring. There are some 鈥榳ild鈥 ones, but you can also visit spas and baths that tap into geothermal springs.

Geothermal power is also used for domestic and industrial purposes around the country.


If you love to see majestic waterfalls of all shapes and sizes, Iceland is the country to visit. There are in fact thousands of waterfalls around the country, so you鈥檒l have plenty to choose from.

You will generally find at least one or two waterfalls on itineraries including the Golden Circle, south coast or the Ring Road. But you may want to go off the beaten path and visit even more.

Here are our top 10 waterfalls to see in Iceland:

  • Gullfoss, part of the Golden Circle
  • Seljalandsfoss and Sk贸gafoss, located on the south coast
  • Svartifoss in Skaftafell 
  • Dettifoss in the Vatnaj枚kull National Park
  • Go冒afoss in North Iceland
  • Dynjandi in the Westfjords
  • Hraunfossar waterfalls in the west
  • Hengifoss in East Iceland
  • Haifoss in the East Fjords
Iceland, Seljalandsfoss Waterfall


Iceland鈥檚 nickname as the Land of Fire and Ice comes less because of its climate and more because of its glaciers. The various ice caps, outlet glaciers, alpine glaciers, mountain glaciers, and ice streams bring the total of glaciers in Iceland to 269! They cover over 11% of its landmass.

The largest Icelandic glacier is Vatnaj枚kull, which is 8,200 square kilometers and up to 1,000 meters thick in places. It is also the biggest of its kind in all of Europe!

The landscape of the island bears witness to the last Ice Age. And the powerful glacial torrents continue to shape the land, carving spectacular gorges into the lava landscape.

Black sand beaches

You may have heard about the black sand beaches of Iceland. If you鈥檝e never witnessed those before, you鈥檒l surely be awed by the stark color of the Icelandic coast.

Black sand occurs because of the volcanoes nearby. It is a mix of molten lava entering in contact with the water. The lava cools down so rapidly that it breaks up into sand instantly.

Some of the most famous black sand beaches include Reynisfjara and Diamond Beach, on the south coast, as well as Djupalonssandur on the Sn忙fellsnes peninsula.

If anything, while you鈥檙e visiting Iceland, you鈥檒l find the other colors of sand bizarre. Like the red sand of Rau冒isandur in the Westfjords.

Be careful when walking along the beaches in Iceland. You should try to keep a safe distance from the shoreline due to rogue waves and strong undercurrents.

National parks

Iceland has 3 main national parks:

  • 脼ingvellir
  • Sn忙fellsj枚kull
  • Vatnaj枚kull

脼ingvellir (or Thingvellir) is where the North American and Eurasian tectonic plates meet. It is an impressive sight and one of cultural importance too.

Thingvellir National Park, Iceland

It was inscribed as one of Iceland鈥檚 UNESCO World Heritage sites because it is the original location of the Icelandic parliament, the Al镁ing.

Sn忙fellsj枚kull is located along the Sn忙fellsnes peninsula and is a must-see if you鈥檙e visiting the area. You鈥檒l find Vatnaj枚kull in the southeast. The glacier that makes up the national park is Europe鈥檚 largest ice cap and can be admired from a faraway distance.

Visiting the capital, Reykjav铆k

Reykjav铆k is the capital and largest city of Iceland, where nearly two-thirds of the country鈥檚 population lives. It is a lively and thriving city at the center of Icelandic culture, with fun activities and attractions for you to explore.

You鈥檒l also find a range of excellent caf茅s and restaurants offering delicious international cuisine.

Whether you鈥檙e in town for a city break or staying the night before you tour the island, it鈥檚 worth taking the time to explore the capital.

Here are the 10 best things to do in Reykjav铆k:

  • Taste Icelandic cuisine
  • Learn more about history at the National Museum of Iceland
  • Walk along the seaside and see the Sun Voyager
  • Dip in one of the city鈥檚 geothermal swimming pools
  • Take in the view from the top of Hallgr铆mskirkja
  • Try the most popular ice cream in the country
  • In summer, hike up Mount Esja
  • Sail to Vi冒ey Island to see the Imagine Peace Tower
  • Take the bus to Gr贸tta Lighthouse for a relaxed day
  • Visit the Perlan and its Wonder of Iceland exhibition
Aerial view of Reykjavik, Iceland

Music and culture in Iceland

We couldn鈥檛 write about Iceland without mentioning the amazing cultural scene of this small but vibrant country. You鈥檝e likely heard about an artist or two from the Land of Fire and Ice.

And if you鈥檙e just dreaming of your future trip to Iceland, you can look up some of these to travel via art. It鈥檒l keep you entertained until you can see the real thing in person!

Famous Icelandic musicians and bands

Boasting such world-famous artists as the queen of Icelandic music, Bj枚rk, and the popular indie band Sigur R贸s, Iceland is clearly a musical country.

For your Iceland playlist, you鈥檒l also want to add Of Monsters and Men, Kaleo, and S贸ley, who are all making their mark around the world.

International artists often play in Iceland, while at the other end of the spectrum you will find that many pubs offer a variety of live music.

Literature in Iceland

Nowadays Iceland is known for its Nordic noir crime fiction books. But way back when, it was the Icelandic sagas that made their way into the world consciousness. They are a great way to learn more about the local mythology as most date back to the 12th and 13th centuries.

Then modern Icelandic literature was recognized in 1955 when Halld贸r Laxness won the Nobel Prize of Literature.

To travel to Iceland through books, pick up authors such as Thor Vilhj谩lmsson, Einar K谩rason, Arnaldur Indri冒arson, Yrsa Sigur冒ard贸ttir, and Au冒ur Ava 脫lafsd贸ttir, amongst others.

Best festivals and events to attend

Iceland is a lively nation with many celebrations. All year long, there are international festivals or smaller events you could attend to immerse yourself in the Icelandic cultural scene.

Here are the events and dates to remember:

  • The midwinter festival of 脼orrabl贸t in January
  • Winter Lights Festival in February
  • Beer Day on 1 March
  • Iceland Winter Games in March
  • First day of summer in late April
  • Reykjav铆k Arts Festival in June
  • Seafarers鈥 Day in early June
  • Iceland鈥檚 National Day on 17 June
  • Secret Solstice Festival in late June
  • Folk Music Festival in July
  • Br忙冒slan in July
  • Reykjav铆k Jazz Festival in August
  • Reykjav铆k Culture Night and Marathon in August
  • Pride in Reykjav铆k in August
  • R茅ttir in September
  • Reykjav铆k International Literary Festival in September
  • Reykjav铆k International Film Festival in late September
  • Iceland Airwaves in November

Northern Lights in Iceland

The Northern Lights are one of the biggest draws for travelers visiting Iceland in winter.

But what are Northern Lights, you ask? Also known as the Aurora Borealis, they are caused by the interaction of particles from the sun with the upper atmosphere near the North Pole. That reaction creates the wonderful light effects we know as Northern Lights.

Northern Lights at Kirkjufell in Iceland

We often get asked, 鈥渨hat is the best month to see Northern Lights in Iceland?鈥 Well, there isn鈥檛 one month in particular. We do recommend visiting in winter for the best chances of sightings. That鈥檚 because you need a dark northern sky, which Iceland has plenty of at that time of year.

Wondering where to go to see the Northern Lights in Iceland? You could see them about anywhere, even from the capital. But follow our top tips to put all the chances of sightings on your side:

  • Visit in winter as the skies are darker at that time
  • Head to the countryside if possible
  • Stay up late as the best sightings occur between 10 p.m. and 2 a.m.
  • Check the forecast as you鈥檙e looking for good weather conditions and clear skies
  • Be patient and dress warmly to stay out in the Icelandic winter
  • Book a fun outing like a cruise or bus tour to hunt for the Northern Lights

And always remember that this phenomenon is natural and so cannot be timed or guaranteed. There is always some luck involved!

Guide to Iceland – What and when to visit

Finding out what you want to visit and when you鈥檒l travel to Iceland are the first two steps in the planning process. Below you鈥檒l find some tips to pick the right season for your travels and our top tens of things to do and see during your visit.

What is the best month to visit Iceland?

Iceland is a beautiful and exciting country all year long. This is why Iceland Tours has created itineraries for summer and winter alike.

Only you can choose which is the best time for the adventure you have in mind. Fantastic activities and sights are available in both travel seasons and each one has different draws and benefits.

Exploring Iceland in summer

The summer is by far the most popular time to visit Iceland. There are also a wide variety of activities and festivals to attend, and the landscape is at its best. Hiking is an activity favored by locals and visitors, and you could even dip your toes in the sea.

Iceland鈥檚 stunning highland region opens in late June if you want to go off the beaten path. The Westfjords also become more accessible at this time of year.

The months of June, July, and August are the most popular as they enjoy the best and most stable weather of the year. During these months, you can enjoy the never-ending daylight thanks to the midnight sun. It means the days are long and you can explore to your heart鈥檚 content.

For a slightly quieter time, visit during the shoulder months in May or September.

Exploring Iceland in winter

Due to the darkness and winter weather, the period between October and March attracts fewer visitors. But it is more and more popular!

In fact, there are some big draws to visiting at this time. You鈥檒l enjoy a quieter side of Iceland, with less traffic on the roads and at the popular attractions. There鈥檚 less demand for accommodation and activities too.

And don鈥檛 let the winter weather keep you away. Iceland in winter can be as enchanting as ever, with frosty waterfalls and snow-capped mountains.

While winter driving in Iceland can be more challenging, it is a great way to travel. You could discover the south coast or even drive around the Ring Road. You just need to be flexible and always check on the weather and road conditions before setting off each day.

The biggest attraction of visiting Iceland at this time of year has to be the Northern Lights. They are sure to be on many bucket lists! This natural phenomenon can best be enjoyed in darkness, which is why winter is ideal for sightings.

Best things to do and places to visit

Wondering what you should not miss while visiting Iceland? We鈥檝e compiled it all for you. The best things to do, the best places to visit, and even the best activities or day tours to add to your itinerary.

Top 10 things to do in Iceland:

  • Go hiking in national parks
  • Relax and dip in hot springs
  • Photograph the Icelandic wildlife
  • Marvel at countless waterfalls
  • Witness the Northern Lights in winter
  • Learn about Icelandic folklore and legends
  • Taste the Icelandic cuisine
  • Admire the bobbing icebergs on glacier lagoons
  • See the rock formations along the coast
  • Explore the highlands in summer
Group of hikers going up the path at Landmannalaugar, Laugavegur trek, Iceland

Top 10 places to visit in Iceland:

  • Reykjav铆k
  • Golden Circle
  • J枚kuls谩rl贸n glacier lagoon
  • Lake M媒vatn
  • Blue Lagoon
  • Sn忙fellsnes peninsula and Snaefellsj枚kull National Park
  • Vatnaj枚kull National Park
  • V铆k 铆 M媒rdal and its surrounding attractions
  • Seljalandsfoss and Sk贸gafoss waterfalls
  • Akureyri

Enrich your stay even more with one or more of these fun activities:

  • Go horseback riding
  • Try ice caving
  • Take a helicopter tour
  • Hike on top of a glacier
  • Snorkel between the tectonic plates
  • Drive a snowmobile in winter
  • Watch for whales or Northern Lights on a cruise
  • Walk 鈥淚nto the Glacier鈥
  • Sail onto the glacier lagoon
  • Visit the Fridheimar greenhouse
  • Kayak by S贸lheimaj枚kull glacier

Traveling with the family

Iceland is a great destination to visit with your family. In fact, there is something here for all ages. And Iceland is very family-friendly, with festivals, activities, and restaurants for all.

If you want to travel to Iceland with young children, we recommend visiting in summer. This isn鈥檛 just about the school holidays, but also about the way you鈥檒l be able to explore. There is more daylight to take advantage of at this time and more kid-friendly activities available too. 

Here are our recommendations for top family adventures in Iceland:

  • Walk through lava caves and tunnels
  • Hike to an abandoned farm at Kleif
  • Learn about geology at the Perlan
  • Ride an Icelandic horse
  • See the wild reindeer in East Iceland
  • Go puffin- and whale-watching
  • Visit the H谩afell goat farm
  • Try the flight simulator at FlyOver Iceland
  • Attend the Children鈥檚 Culture Festival in April
  • Let them try the slides at the Reykjav铆k swimming pools
Group tour in Vatnshellir cave, Iceland

Hiking in Iceland

Iceland is a fantastic location for hikers, amateur or experts alike. If that is the reason you鈥檙e visiting this Nordic nation, you鈥檙e in for an unforgettable adventure.

You could hike Mount Esja outside Reykjav铆k or take on trails in the countryside. A popular multi-day hike is the one at Laugavegur in the highlands. The national parks are also ideal for days of walking.

The best time to visit Iceland for this outdoor endeavor is between June and September. It is during these summer months that the paths are accessible. With the longer daylight hours, you can also take full advantage of the trails and Iceland鈥檚 natural beauty.

Please always be careful as a hiker to not put yourself in danger and always be ready for the weather conditions.

How to explore Iceland

There are many ways to travel around Iceland. It鈥檒l all depend on your personal tastes and requirements. You could go on a guided or self-guided vacation. Read more below. 


Is Iceland expensive to visit? How much money do you need per day in Iceland? These are frequently asked questions that we answered in our expert blog post about the subject.

But the short answer is that it is possible to travel to Iceland on a budget. With Iceland Tours, you get good local deals and the options to pick your preferences in terms of accommodation, activities, and car hire.


Iceland is the perfect destination for a road trip. Taking the wheel means you can go at your own pace. Stop whenever you want to take in the breathtaking views or to visit attractions.

Are you thinking of touring the Ring Road all the way around Iceland? Read our experts’ guide: How long does it take to drive around Iceland.

Self Drive Tours in Iceland

Driving in Iceland is an adventure that you won鈥檛 regret! Especially when you book with Iceland Tours as you鈥檒l get in-car Wi-Fi, unlimited mileage, collision damage waiver, and more as part of your booking.

Privately guided tours of Iceland

A private tour of Iceland means you鈥檒l get the undivided attention of your own expert guide who will also act as your personal driver. Iceland Tours will even handpick a guide for you to make sure they match your interests.

You then sit back and relax. Enjoy the views and all the insight your guide will bring you about Iceland. They will also be able to tailor your tour even more chatting with you every day about your preferences.

Camping tours of Iceland

A camping trip to Iceland can be the same as a normal self-drive tour, but you get to sleep closer to nature. You鈥檒l stay in camping grounds around the region you picked or the whole country if you鈥檙e touring the Ring Road.

Iceland Tours will always include camping gear so you don鈥檛 have to lug your own items on the flight over. Your gear will be made up of a tent, sleeping bag, mattress, cutlery, stove, and cool box.

You only have to cover the camping fee, which is usually between 1500 and 3500 ISK per night per person.

City break

If you鈥檙e looking for a fun but short getaway, Iceland is still excellent for that kind of stay. Come explore Reykjav铆k, the buzzing capital, and take day tours to famous attractions. This is great if you want to stay put for your getaway or only have a few days to explore.

There is so much to visit in Reykjav铆k, as you may have read above, and many fun activities to add to your itinerary.

Take a day tour of the Golden Circle or go relaxing at the Blue Lagoon. Enjoy whale watching, a visit to the Westman Islands, or adventure yourself 鈥淚nto the Glacier鈥 or in a lava tunnel.


You鈥檝e learned so much about Iceland and maybe you鈥檙e ready to create or pick an itinerary. If you鈥檙e wondering how many days you need to see Iceland, we recommend at least a week for a tour of the island.

With less time than that, you may want to focus your adventures around one or two specific regions instead.

Here is our suggestion for a 7-day itinerary:

Day 1: Arrive in Iceland

Depending on when you fly into Iceland, you鈥檒l have the rest of the day to explore Reykjav铆k. The capital city is a treasure trove of interactive museums, fun activities, cozy caf茅s, and excellent restaurants.

Day 2: Drive north to Akureyri

Today you start your road trip. You鈥檒l pass through Borgarfj枚r冒ur and Skagafj枚r冒ur. The latter is known for its horse breeding so keep an eye out for the fluffy and sturdy Icelandic horses. Along the way, make a pit stop by the beautiful Hraunfossar waterfalls.

Day 3: Lake M媒vatn area

Drive to the Lake M媒vatn Nature Reserve, one of Iceland鈥檚 most inspiring areas. On the way, don鈥檛 miss the impressive Go冒afoss as well as the N谩maskar冒 geothermal area to see bubbling mud pools and hissing steam vents. There are two craters worthy of your time too, V铆ti and Hverfjall.

Day 4: The East Fjords

Today you drive through East Iceland and discover the East Fjords. Visit small history museums, try local seafood, and enjoy the charming villages. At times, you鈥檒l see that the road hangs precariously on the mountain slope providing stunning views below.

Day 5: Highlights of the southeast

After passing various outlet glaciers from Vatnaj枚kull you鈥檒l arrive at J枚kuls谩rl贸n glacier lagoon. This enchanting sight with bobbing icebergs is a must-see! We then recommend spending some time in the Skaftafell area. This natural oasis, surrounded by glaciers and stark black sand plains, is ideal for hiking.

Day 6: The Golden Circle

Today you discover the highlights of the famous Golden Circle. See geysers, admire the stunning Gullfoss waterfall, and marvel at the geology of 脼ingvellir National Park.

Day 7: Departure

And just like that, it鈥檚 time to say goodbye to Iceland. Depending on when you鈥檙e flying home, you may be able to squeeze in some last few sights in Reykjav铆k.

Congratulations you made it to the end of this article! Do you feel like an expert on Iceland now?

When you’re ready to book your own adventure to the Land of Fire and Ice, browse our Iceland vacation packages to find the one that suits you.


Written by:

Camila Contreras-Langlois